The popular leftist leader must now start serving his 12-year prison sentence for taking bribes, denying his plea to remain free until he has exhausted all possible appeals.
The final vote came as a blow to the presidential candidate, who is currently battling six additional corruption charges while trying to regain leadership of Brazil.
The Supreme Court Justices deliberated for more than 10 hours before reaching their final verdict. It is as yet unclear how soon the arrest warrant will be handed down by Judge Sergio Moor.
While the hearing continued, protests broke out across Brazil, with tens of thousands of Lula's supporters swamping streets in multiple cities.
Moro sentenced Lula in July 2017 to nine years in prison for the alleged crime of passive corruption and money laundering.
In January of this year, the Federal Regional Court of the 4th Region (TRF-4), in Porto Alegre, ratified Judge Moro's sentence and extended it to 12 years and one month in prison.
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