During the first seven months of this year, 72 probable cases of diphtheria have been reported with 74 per cent of the cases being children under 10 years old.
They said immunization status is unknown for 54.5 per cent of confirmed cases; 18 per cent were vaccinated and 27 per cent were not vaccinated. The confirmed cases come from four departments: Artibonite, Center, West and Southeast.
Diphtheria is an infectious disease due to three bacterial species capable of producing diphtheria toxin. The bacterium is transmitted by air, specifically via aerosols emitted during a cough or sneezing during direct contact with a patient or asymptomatic carrier.
The incubation period is usually 2 to 5 days. The most characteristic symptom of this disease is the presence of whitish “false membranes” in the tonsils (diphtheria) or in the wound (cutaneous diphtheria). Diphtheria angina is the usual form of the disease.
It is characterized by pharyngitis, fever, swelling of the neck and headache. In some cases, the toxin can lead to paralysis of the central nervous system or the diaphragm and throat, resulting in death by asphyxiation.
Treatment of diphtheria consists of immediate administration of anti-diphtheria serum by intramuscular injection and antibiotics.
The vaccine is the only way to be protected against diphtheria because there is no natural immunity. The vaccines against diphtheria are effective and well tolerated.
- Countries: Haiti